Development of a method for numeric optimization of the heating and cooling of electric cars

The Research Institute for Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) is cooperating with MERKLE & PARTNER and AUDI AG in the research project “E-Mo-Heiz - Development of a method for numeric optimization of the heating and cooling of electric cars”. The research project is being supported within the framework of the support program “KMU-innovativ - Verbundvorhaben Klimaschutz” (Small- to medium-sized business innovation - Cooperative project climate protection) by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).  

 

Combustion engines in motor vehicles have an efficiency of approximately 35%. The energy contained in the fuel (gasoline, diesel) is therefore mainly converted into heat and exhaust gas. A small amount of this waste heat is used in vehicles with conventional drives to heat the vehicle. The heating demand of a conventional mid-size car is approximately 7 kW and can therefore be easily made available. The same also applies to cooling the passenger compartment with the aid of the air-conditioning system.  

 

In electric vehicles the energy required to heat and cool the passenger compartment must be drawn from the battery. The drawn energy reduces directly the range of a vehicle driven solely by electrical means.  

 

The current calculation methods for calculating the air-conditioning performance of automobile passenger cells are too rough. They must be analyzed and optimized in greater depth to get the most efficient air conditioning performance and the required degree of precision.  

 

A better understanding of the mechanisms (where is my heat energy and where is it needed?) can help to optimize electric vehicles with regard to maximum range together with acceptable heating and cooling performance.   

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