Our modular engine toolbox depicts virtual test vehicles with widely-varying displacements as part of the 0D/1D simulation, which can be equipped with different charging strategies, combustion processes and technology packages.
For suppliers in particular, it is often useful to be able to evaluate the potential of new ideas virtually on different test vehicles in the modular engine toolbox, or to use it to determine boundary conditions. Questions can often be answered faster, better and more cheaply using the modular engine toolbox than in a test on the real test bench. The virtual test vehicles can be arranged either as current units or adapted to describe different future scenarios.
The different test vehicles in the modular engine toolbox can be used for initial investigations of stationary operating points as well as for transient simulations, such as the heating-up behavior of the exhaust system. When combined with a rudimentary engine control unit, they can also be used for virtual RDE trips.
Please find more information about 0D/1D simulation here.
Our basic gasoline engines are a 1.2l 3-cylinder engine and a 4-cylinder engine with 1.5l or 2.0l displacement. These can be configured to the desired performance using the scalable charging system. They can be supplemented with different technologies such as external high-load EGR, water injection, variable compression, Miller and Atkinson cams, lean burning process and many more.
Our most important diesel unit is a 2.0l engine with combined HP/LP EGR, compact exhaust system and a Euro 6d-compliant combustion process including application. These can also be equipped with diverse additional technologies, such as a variable valve train, new combustion processes or alternative exhaust aftertreatment strategies. Here it often makes sense to evaluate the risk of excessive cooling of the exhaust aftertreatment under RDE boundary conditions.
No single engine concept is clearly dominant in the heavy commercial vehicles market. Non-EGR concepts can be found alongside two-stage charged or single-stage with asymmetrical turbines, which are operated with high EGR rates across the entire engine map. Correspondingly, we start by using virtual test vehicles to depict these three basic concepts available on the market. These can subsequently be equipped with further technology modules.
A virtual conversion to gas operation is also possible: not only for stationary applications in combined heat and power plants, but also for mobile applications. Potential synthetic fuels of the future, such as polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (POMDME), can also be incorporated and their effect on the engine design evaluated.
The off-highway engine market is extremely diverse and ranges from small 2-stroke high-performance motors (e.g. chainsaws), rail drives, combined heat and power units, all the way up to large-scale maritime applications. The fuels are just as varied: from heavy oil and distillate through to gasoline, CNG and LNG.
Our huge experience in diverse sectors enables us to create customized virtual test vehicles for the relevant application cases. Off-highway engines are nearly always designed for maximum efficiency. Therefore, a good illustration of the virtual combustion process is of critical importance.
The core of the engine construction kit is the prediction-capable modeling and calibration of the combustion process. We use FKFS UserCylinder® for this. When depicting the combustion process, the highest quality is required in order to be able to draw reliable conclusions about exhaust gas temperatures, emissions or consumption. Based on 15 years of experience in combustion process development and modeling with UserCylinder, we are able to set robust combustion chamber model parameters for different combustion processes. Not only can we set configurations for current Euro 6c combustion processes, but we can also use the model to estimate future combustion processes.
The combustion processes of the virtual test vehicles behave like real test vehicles and must be “applied” in the same way, i.e., all the actuators must be parameterized for stationary and transient operation. For a diesel engine this means, for example, all the injection points, quantities, the rail pressure and, if necessary, shaping of an injection profile or “digital rate shaping”, an EGR rate, a LP/HP EGR split, VNT positions, valve train variabilities or swirl and throttle. FKFS is able to draw on years of experience in the field of virtual application.